The Chinese grammar section explains the main grammatical structures you need to know in order to make your own sentences. There are example sentences to show how the language is used.
Watch our videos to help you understand grammar and listen our audios to help you pronounce the language in an interactive, clear and simple way.
In this unit, learn to:
Use “除了…… 以外” to express exceptions and additions
We use “除了……以外” to mean “except, besides, in addition” in English. Note that “以外” can be omitted in the “除了……以外” pattern.
In addition, “除了……以外” can follow with “都” or “还/也” as follows:
i) “除了……以外， … 都 …” means “all … except …” to indicate that except the part being mentioned, all the others in the specific scope are the same.
The grammatical structure: “除了…… 以外，…都…”
Except Mei Mei, everyone came.
Except Sunday, you need to work on all days.
ii) “除了……以外 + 还/也” means “besides …”, “in addition to …” or “ … not only …, but also …” to indicate that there are still others besides the part being mentioned.
The grammatical structure:
“除了......以外 + Subject + 还 / 也” or
“Subject + 除了......以外 + 还 / 也”
Besides Chinese, I also study English.
In addition to red wine, he also likes white wine.
Bruce Lee is very popular not only among Chinese, but also among foreigners.
Extension of the complements of direction
Simple complements of direction such as “來/去” to indicate the direction of an action where:
- “來” is used to indicate the direction towards the speaker
- “去” is used to indicate the direction way from the speaker
The grammatical structure of the simple complements of direction is: “V1 + 來/去”
The simple complements of direction used in common, including
1) 出 (out) + 來 = 出來 (go out)
2) 下 (down) + 來 = 下來 (go down)
3) 起 (up) + 來 = 起來 (stand up)
Directional verbs such as “上(up), 下(down), 進 (in), 出 (out), 回(return), 過(come), 起(stand)” , etc., followed by a simple complement of direction such as “來(come) / 去(go) ” can be used after another verb as its complement to form a compound complement of direction.
The use of the compound complement of direction is to indicate the direction of the action and describes the action in detail. Common compound complements of direction are:
上來 (come up),
上去 (go up),
下去 (go down),
進去 (come in),
出去 (come out),
回去 (return back),
The grammatical structure of the compound complements of direction is “… V2 + [V1 + 來 / 去 ] …”
The compound complements of direction used in common, including
i) “出來” can be used after a verb to indicate the emergence of something new.
Did you come up with the itinerary for this trip?
Once the inspiration comes, the lyrics will be written in a while.
ii) “出來” -- When used after a verb, “出來” can also indicate the recognition of something implicit.
I heard it, and the voice on the phone was Dad.
Do you recognize him? He is Xiao Wang.
Can't you taste it? The first cup is white coffee and the second cup is black coffee.
iii) “下來” – When used certain adjectives or verbs, “下來” indicates a change from movement to stillness, from being strong to being weak, or from being fast to being slow.
As soon as Dad picked up the baby, he was quiet.
When the station arrived, the train stopped.
Time can be slower.
(iv) “起來” – When used after a verb, “起來” indicates the act of recalling has reached a result.
Your uncle’s phone number, did you remember it?
I can't remember what I ate last Saturday.
Chinese Vocabulary and Writing
The Chinese vocabulary and writing section introduces new Chinese vocabulary you need to know in order to understand the language. For each new vocabulary, you learn what it means, how to pronounce and write it.
Having a good vocabulary will help you improve your language level and become a more confident speaker of Mandarin. Practising Chinese writing is often one of the best ways to improve your vocabulary.
Chinese character copybooks available online or in printed format enable you to practise your Chinese writing in a stroke by stroke manner.
In this unit, learn how to pronounce and write new vocabulary below:
矮 [ ǎi ] (adj) short
班 [ bān ] (n) class
别人 [ bié rén ] (n) other people
成绩 [ chénɡ jì ] (n) grade; performance; achievement
除了 [ chú le ] (prep) other than
分 [ fēn ] (v) to distinguish
复习 [ fù xí ] (v) to review
关系 [ ɡuān xi ] (n) relationship
过去 [ ɡuò qù ] (n) past
回答 [ huí dá ] (v) to answer
几乎 [ jī hū ] (adv) almost
结婚 [ jié hūn ] (v) to marry; to get married
留学 [ liú xué ] (v) to study abroad
年级 [ nián jí ] (n) grade
其他 [ qí tā ] (pron) the rest
认 [ rèn ] (v) to recognise ; to identify
瘦 [ shòu ] (adj) thin
校长 [ xiào zhǎnɡ ] (n) headmaster