Open Class HSK test -

Unit 19

Drama Life 意料之外

Learning Objective 

Chinese Grammar

The Chinese grammar section explains the main grammatical structures you need to know in order to make your own sentences.  There are example sentences to show how the language is used. 


Watch our videos to help you understand grammar and listen our audios to help you pronounce the language in an interactive, clear and simple way.

In this unit, learn to:

Use  “除了…… 以外” to express exceptions and additions

We use “除了……以外” to mean “except, besides, in addition” in English. Note that “以外” can be omitted in the “除了……以外” pattern.

In addition, “除了……以外” can follow with “都” or “还/也” as follows:

i) “除了……以外, … 都 …” means “all … except …” to indicate that except the part being mentioned, all the others in the specific scope are the same.

The grammatical structure: “除了…… 以外,…都…”


  • 除了美美, 其他人都来。
    Except Mei Mei, everyone came.

  • 除了星期天以外,其他日子都要上班。
    Except Sunday, you need to work on all days.

ii) “除了……以外 + 还/也” means “besides …”, “in addition to …” or “ … not only …, but also …” to indicate that there are still others besides the part being mentioned.

The grammatical structure: 

 “除了......以外 + Subject + 还 / 也” or 

 “Subject + 除了......以外 + 还 / 也”


  • 除了汉语以外,我还有学习英语。
    Besides Chinese, I also study English.

  • 除了红酒,他还喜欢白酒。
    In addition to red wine, he also likes white wine.

  • 李小龙除了受中国人欢迎外,也受外国人欢迎。
    Bruce Lee is very popular not only among Chinese, but also among foreigners.

Extension of the complements of direction

Simple complements of direction such as “來/去” to indicate the direction of an action where:

- “來” is used to indicate the direction towards the speaker

- “去” is used to indicate the direction way from the speaker

The grammatical structure of the simple complements of direction is: “V1 + 來/去”

The simple complements of direction used in common, including

1) 出 (out)  + 來 = 出來 (go out)

2) 下 (down) + 來 = 下來 (go down)

3) 起 (up)  + 來 = 起來 (stand up)

Directional verbs such as “上(up), 下(down), 進 (in), 出 (out), 回(return), 過(come), 起(stand)” , etc., followed by a simple complement of direction such as “來(come) / 去(go) ” can be used after another verb as its complement to form a compound complement of direction.

The use of the compound complement of direction is to indicate the direction of the action and describes the action in detail. Common compound complements of direction are:


上來 (come up),

下來(come down),

進來(come in),

出來(come out),


起來(stand up)


上去 (go up),

下去 (go down),

進去 (come in),

出去 (come out),

回去 (return back),

過去(past by)

The grammatical structure of the compound complements of direction is “… V2 + [V1 + 來 / 去 ] …”

The compound complements of direction used in common, including

i) “出來” can be used after a verb to indicate the emergence of something new.

For examples:

  • 这次旅行的行程,你想出来了吗?
    Did you come up with the itinerary for this trip?

  • 只要灵感来了,歌词一会儿就写出来了。
    Once the inspiration comes, the lyrics will be written in a while.

ii) “出來” -- When used after a verb, “出來” can also indicate the recognition of something implicit.

For examples:

  • 我听出来了,电话里的声音就是爸爸。
    I heard it, and the voice on the phone was Dad.

  • 你看出來了嗎? 他就是小王。
    Do you recognize him? He is Xiao Wang.

  • 你喝不出來嗎? 第一杯是白咖啡,第二杯是黑咖啡。
    Can't you taste it? The first cup is white coffee and the second cup is black coffee.

iii) “下來” – When used certain adjectives or verbs, “下來” indicates a change from movement to stillness, from being strong to being weak, or from being fast to being slow.

For examples:

  • 爸爸一抱起小宝宝,他就安静下来了。
    As soon as Dad picked up the baby, he was quiet.

  • 到站了,火车停下来。
    When the station arrived, the train stopped.

  • 时间能够慢下来就好。
    Time can be slower.

(iv) “起來” – When used after a verb, “起來” indicates the act of recalling has reached a result.

For examples:

  • 叔叔的电话号码,你记起来了吗?
    Your uncle’s phone number, did you remember it?

  • 我想不起上星期六吃过什么。
    I can't remember what I ate last Saturday.

Chinese Vocabulary and Writing

The Chinese vocabulary and writing section introduces new Chinese vocabulary you need to know in order to understand the language.  For each new vocabulary, you learn what it means, how to pronounce and write it. 

Having a good vocabulary will help you improve your language level and become a more confident speaker of Mandarin.  Practising Chinese writing is often one of the best ways to improve your vocabulary.


Chinese character copybooks available online or in printed format enable you to practise your Chinese writing in a stroke by stroke manner.  


In this unit, learn how to pronounce and write new vocabulary below:

矮 [ ǎi ] (adj) short

班 [ bān ] (n) class

别人 [ bié rén ] (n) other people

成绩 [ chénɡ jì ] (n) grade; performance; achievement

除了 [ chú le ] (prep) other than

分 [ fēn ] (v) to distinguish

复习 [ fù xí ] (v) to review

关系 [ ɡuān xi ] (n) relationship

过去 [ ɡuò qù ] (n) past

回答 [ huí dá ] (v) to answer

几乎 [ jī hū ] (adv) almost

结婚 [ jié hūn ] (v) to marry; to get married

留学 [ liú xué ] (v) to study abroad

年级 [ nián jí ] (n) grade

其他 [ qí tā ] (pron) the rest

认 [ rèn ] (v) to recognise ; to identify

瘦 [ shòu ] (adj) thin

校长 [ xiào zhǎnɡ ] (n) headmaster

Supplementary Notes